Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson resigned as an Unitarian
minister in 1832 and subsequently tried to establish himself as a
lecturer and writer. His efforts in this direction included the
self-financed publication of a pamphlet entitled "Nature" in
1836. This essay, only five hundred copies of which were printed
(and these took some six years to be distributed), received
little initial notice but effectively articulated the
philosophical underpinnings of the subsequently widely
influential New England Transcendentalism movement.
Essays - History
In July 1838 Emerson caused considerable controversy through
the content of an Address delivered to the senior class at
Harvard College Divinity School. In this Address Emerson
effectively attacked formal religion and encouraged people to
seek an intuitive spiritual experience.
... the doors of the temple stand open, night and day, before
every man, and the oracles of this truth cease never, it is
guarded by one stern condition; this, namely; it is an intuition.
It cannot be received at second hand. ...
Emerson's first substantial publication was a volume of Essays
that issued from the presses in 1841. There were twelve essays in
this volume the very first being one entitled "History".
This essay sets out a transcendentalist approach to History
where the "innate Humanity" that is common to all of mankind is
seen as operating throughout the ages in the shaping of events.
The first two paragraphs include such sentiments as:-
"There is one mind common to all individual men.
Of the works of this mind history is the record.
Man is explicable by nothing less than all his history.
all the facts of history pre-exist as laws. Each law in
turn is made by circumstances predominant. The creation
of a thousand forests is in one acorn, and Egypt, Greece, Rome,
Gaul, Britain, America, lie folded already in the first man.
Epoch after epoch, camp, kingdom, empire, republic, democracy,
are merely the application of this manifold spirit to the
Towards the end of the Essay Emerson asserts that :-
" every history should be written in a wisdom which
divined the range of our affinities and looked at facts as
symbols. I am ashamed to see what a shallow village tale our
so-called History is".
Emerson suggests that it is by looking at facts as symbolic of
the application of human affinities that people may hope for a
broader and deeper writing of history that would more truly
express, and constructively demonstrate, Humanity's central and
Many of our visitors seem to find the content of one of our pages -
Which is about Human Nature, (and 'Very Possibly' related matters)
- to be particularly fascinating!!!
There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good fellowship in thee.
"…can we possibly refuse to admit that there exist in each
of us the same generic parts and characteristics as are found in
the state? For I presume the state has not received them from any
other source. It would be ridiculous to imagine that the presence
of the spirited element in cities is not to be traced to
individuals, wherever this character is imputed to the people, as
it is to the natives of Thrace, and Scythia, and generally
speaking, of the northern countries; or the love of knowledge,
which would be chiefly attributed to our own country; or the love
of riches, which people would especially connect with the
Phoenicians and the Egyptians.
From Plato's most famous work ~ The Republic ~ detailing conversations entered into by his friend, and teacher, Socrates
Pythagoras was a prominent figure in the intellectual life of the Greek world of the sixth century B.C.
Alongside his genuine contributions to mathematics and geometry Pythogoras is also considered to have recognised that there was
evidently a "Tripartite" complexity to Human Nature:-
Pythagoras who, according to Heraclides of Pontus, the pupil of Plato and a learned man
of the first rank, came, the story goes, to Philus and with a wealth of learning and words
discussed certain subjects with Leon the ruler of the Philasians. And Leon after wondering
at his talent and eloquence asked him to name the art in which he put most reliance. But
Pythagoras said that for his part he had no acquaintance with any art, but was a philosopher.
Leon was astonished at the novelty of the term and asked who philosophers were and in what
they differed from the rest of the world.
Pythagoras, the story continues, replied that the life of man seemed to him to resemble
the festival which was celebrated with most magnificent games before a concourse collected
from the whole of Greece. For at this festival some men whose bodies had been trained sought
to win the glorious distinction of a crown, others were attracted by the prospect of making
gains by buying or selling, whilst there was on the other hand a certain class, and that quite
the best class of free-born men, who looked neither for applause no gain, but came for the sake
of the spectacle and closely watched what was done and how it was done: So also we, as though
we had come from some city to a kind of crowded festival, leaving in like fashion another life
and nature of being, entered upon this life, and some were slaves of ambition, some of money;
there were a special few who, counting all else as nothing, ardently contemplated the nature
of things. These men he would call "lovers of wisdom" (for that is the meaning of the word
In all districts of all lands, in all the classes of communities thousands of minds are intently occupied, the merchant in his compting house, the mechanist over his plans, the statesman
at his map, his treaty, & his tariff, the scholar in the skilful history & eloquence of antiquity, each stung to the quick with the desire of exalting himself to a hasty & yet unfound
height above the level of his peers. Each is absorbed in the prospect of good accruing to himself but each is no less contributing to the utmost of his ability to fix & adorn human
In William H. Gilman (ed.) The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol II, 1822-1826, 305
In what is perhaps Ralph Waldo Emerson's most famous essay - 'History' - we read such things as:-
… There is one mind common to all individual men. Every man is
an inlet to the same and to all of the same. He that is once
admitted to the right of reason is made a freeman of the whole
estate. What Plato has thought, he may think; what a saint has
felt, he may feel; what at any time has be-fallen any man, he can
understand. Who hath access to this universal mind is a party to
all that is or can be done, for this is the only and sovereign
Of the works of this mind history is the record. Its genius is
illustrated by the entire series of days. Man is explicable by
nothing less than all his history. Without hurry, without rest,
the human spirit goes forth from the beginning to embody every
faculty, every thought, every emotion, which belongs to it in
appropriate events. But the thought is always prior to the fact;
all the facts of history preexist in the mind as laws. Each law
in turn is made by circumstances predominant, and the limits of
nature give power to but one at a time. …
We are always coming up with the emphatic facts of history in
our private experience, and verifying them here. All history
becomes subjective; in other words, there is properly no history;
only biography. Every mind must know the whole lesson for itself,
-- must go over the whole ground. What it does not see, what it
does not live, it will not know.
In old Rome the public roads beginning at the Forum
proceeded north, south, east, west, to the centre of every
province of the empire, making each market-town of Persia, Spain,
and Britain pervious to the soldiers of the capital: so out of
the human heart go, as it were, highways to the heart of every
object in nature, to reduce it under the dominion of man. A man
is a bundle of relations, a knot of roots, whose flower and
fruitage is the world. His faculties refer to natures out of him,
and predict the world he is to inhabit, as the fins of the fish
foreshow that water exists, or the wings of an eagle in the egg
presuppose air. He cannot live without a world.
"History is for human self-knowledge ... the only clue to what man can do is what man has done.
The value of history, then, is that it teaches us what man has done and thus what man is."
R. G. Collingwood
To access our page about Human Nature, (and 'Very Possibly' related matters), - please click here:-
There are several pages on our site that investigate the
variously persuasive approaches to the study of History that have
been adopted by a number of Famous
That being said none of these Historians have really attempted
to approach their studies from a Transcendentalist
Given this fact we have attempted to briefly set out an
approach to Historical studies which hints at the operation of
human affinities in the providing of the facts which
Historians tend to take as their subjects of study.
If we associate the insights into Human Nature that are
contained on our Spirituality and the Wider World pages ...
Emerson's call for a looking at facts as symbols it seems that we
may hope to draw closer to an appreciation of Humanity's central
and wide-related nature. Such an association is briefly attempted
on our series of pages page that consider several rather dramatic episodes in
Links to this series of pages are available further down this page.